Beowulf Monster Genealogie
In ihr verbringen er, seine Ehefrau Wealhþeow und seine Krieger ihre Zeit mit Singen und Feiern, bis Grendel, ein trollartiges Monster, das vom Lärm aus der. Das Monster, im Film einer verwesenden Leiche ähnlich, sucht gezielt die Met-Halle Hrothgars heim, da sein empfindliches Gehör den Lärm aus der Halle nicht. old monsters became images of the evil spirit, behauptet der englische Professor für das Beowulf-Epos, dass that shift is not complete in Beowulf Beowulf observes the monster's method as one Geat is slaughtered and devoured. Grendel has no chance after that. Although the battle is furious, Beowulf has. Grade Grendel vereint definitiv Mann und Monster. Obwohl Grendel  Den Kopf des Monsters als Trophäe findet man auch in Beowulf. Beowulf und sein.
old monsters became images of the evil spirit, behauptet der englische Professor für das Beowulf-Epos, dass that shift is not complete in Beowulf Beowulf: Monster Slayer [a British Legend] (Graphic Universe) | Storrie, Paul D., Randall, Ron | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit. Grade Grendel vereint definitiv Mann und Monster. Obwohl Grendel  Den Kopf des Monsters als Trophäe findet man auch in Beowulf. Beowulf und sein.
Heorot liegt in der Nähe eines Moores, in dem Grendels Höhle liegt; Grendel fühlt sich von den feiernden Männern Hrothgars belästigt und erträgt nicht die Fröhlichkeit und Musik, die aus der Halle schallt.
Seine Mutter, das Meerweib, versucht daraufhin erfolglos, den Tod ihres Sohnes zu rächen. Sie wird von Beowulf mit dem Schwert erschlagen.
Im Beowulfepos stammen alle Monster von ihm ab. Grendel ist neidisch, verärgert und aufgebracht gegenüber den Menschen, da er wahrscheinlich fühlt, dass Gott diese segnet, er aber davon ausgeschlossen ist.
The protagonist Beowulf , a hero of the Geats, comes to the aid of Hrothgar, king of the Danes , whose great hall, Heorot , is plagued by the monster Grendel.
Beowulf kills Grendel with his bare hands and Grendel's mother with a giant's sword that he found in her lair.
Later in his life, Beowulf becomes king of the Geats, and finds his realm terrorized by a dragon , some of whose treasure had been stolen from his hoard in a burial mound.
He attacks the dragon with the help of his thegns or servants, but they do not succeed. Beowulf finally slays the dragon, but is mortally wounded in the struggle.
He is cremated and a burial mound by the sea is erected in his honour. Beowulf is considered an epic poem in that the main character is a hero who travels great distances to prove his strength at impossible odds against supernatural demons and beasts.
The poem also begins in medias res or simply, "in the middle of things," which is a characteristic of the epics of antiquity.
Although the poem begins with Beowulf's arrival, Grendel's attacks have been an ongoing event. An elaborate history of characters and their lineages is spoken of, as well as their interactions with each other, debts owed and repaid, and deeds of valour.
The warriors form a kind of brotherhood linked by loyalty to their lord. The poem begins and ends with funerals: at the beginning of the poem for Scyld Scefing 26—45 and at the end for Beowulf — Beowulf begins with the story of Hrothgar, who constructed the great hall Heorot for himself and his warriors.
In it, he, his wife Wealhtheow , and his warriors spend their time singing and celebrating.
Grendel, a troll-like monster said to be descended from the biblical Cain , is pained by the sounds of joy. Hrothgar and his people, helpless against Grendel, abandon Heorot.
Beowulf, a young warrior from Geatland, hears of Hrothgar's troubles and with his king's permission leaves his homeland to assist Hrothgar.
Beowulf and his men spend the night in Heorot. Beowulf refuses to use any weapon because he holds himself to be the equal of Grendel.
This display would fuel Grendel's mother's anger in revenge. The next night, after celebrating Grendel's defeat, Hrothgar and his men sleep in Heorot.
Grendel's mother, angry that her son has been killed, sets out to get revenge. Earlier, after the award of treasure, The Geat had been given another lodging"; his assistance would be absent in this battle.
Hrothgar, Beowulf, and their men track Grendel's mother to her lair under a lake. After stipulating a number of conditions to Hrothgar in case of his death including the taking in of his kinsmen and the inheritance by Unferth of Beowulf's estate , Beowulf jumps into the lake, and while harassed by water monsters gets to the bottom, where he finds a cavern.
Grendel's mother pulls him in, and she and Beowulf engage in fierce combat. At first, Grendel's mother appears to prevail, and Hrunting proves incapable of hurting the woman; she throws Beowulf to the ground and, sitting astride him, tries to kill him with a short sword, but Beowulf is saved by his armour.
Beowulf spots another sword, hanging on the wall and apparently made for giants, and cuts her head off with it.
Travelling further into Grendel's mother's lair, Beowulf discovers Grendel's corpse and severs his head with the sword, whose blade melts because of the "hot blood".
Only the hilt remains. Beowulf swims back up to the rim of the pond where his men wait. Carrying the hilt of the sword and Grendel's head, he presents them to Hrothgar upon his return to Heorot.
The events prompt a long reflection by the king, sometimes referred to as "Hrothgar's sermon", in which he urges Beowulf to be wary of pride and to reward his thegns.
Beowulf returns home and eventually becomes king of his own people. When the dragon sees that the cup has been stolen, it leaves its cave in a rage, burning everything in sight.
Beowulf and his warriors come to fight the dragon, but Beowulf tells his men that he will fight the dragon alone and that they should wait on the barrow.
Beowulf descends to do battle with the dragon, but finds himself outmatched. His men, upon seeing this and fearing for their lives, retreat into the woods.
One of his men, Wiglaf, however, in great distress at Beowulf's plight, comes to his aid. The two slay the dragon, but Beowulf is mortally wounded.
After Beowulf dies, Wiglaf remains by his side, grief-stricken. When the rest of the men finally return, Wiglaf bitterly admonishes them, blaming their cowardice for Beowulf's death.
Afterward, Beowulf is ritually burned on a great pyre in Geatland while his people wail and mourn him, fearing that without him, the Geats are defenceless against attacks from surrounding tribes.
Afterwards, a barrow, visible from the sea, is built in his memory Beowulf lines — The dating of Beowulf has attracted considerable scholarly attention and opinion differs as to whether it was first written in the 8th century or whether the composition of the poem was nearly contemporary with its eleventh century manuscript and whether a proto-version of the poem possibly a version of the Bear's Son Tale was orally transmitted before being transcribed in its present form.
Albert Lord felt strongly that the manuscript represents the transcription of a performance, though likely taken at more than one sitting.
Tolkien believed that the poem retains too genuine a memory of Anglo-Saxon paganism to have been composed more than a few generations after the completion of the Christianisation of England around AD ,  and Tolkien's conviction that the poem dates to the 8th century has been defended by Tom Shippey , Leonard Neidorf, Rafael J.
Pascual, and R. Fulk, among others. The claim to an early 11th-century date depends in part on scholars who argue that, rather than the transcription of a tale from the oral tradition by an earlier literate monk, Beowulf reflects an original interpretation of an earlier version of the story by the manuscript's two scribes.
On the other hand, some scholars argue that linguistic, palaeographical , metrical , and onomastic considerations align to support a date of composition in the first half of the eighth century;     in particular, the poem's apparent observation of etymological vowel-length distinctions in unstressed syllables described by Kaluza's law has been thought to demonstrate a date of composition prior to the earlier ninth century.
Hutcheson, for instance, does not believe Kaluza's Law can be used to date the poem, while claiming that "the weight of all the evidence Fulk presents in his book [b] tells strongly in favour of an eighth-century date.
Beowulf survives in a single parchment manuscript dated on palaeographical grounds to the late 10th or early 11th century.
The poem is known only from a single manuscript, which is estimated to date from around —, in which it appears with other works.
The Beowulf manuscript is known as the Nowell Codex, gaining its name from 16th-century scholar Laurence Nowell. XV" because it was one of Sir Robert Bruce Cotton 's holdings in the Cotton library in the middle of the 17th century.
Many private antiquarians and book collectors, such as Sir Robert Cotton, used their own library classification systems.
XV" translates as: the 15th book from the left on shelf A the top shelf of the bookcase with the bust of Roman Emperor Vitellius standing on top of it, in Cotton's collection.
The earliest extant reference to the first foliation of the Nowell Codex was made sometime between and by Franciscus Junius the younger.
Smith's catalogue appeared in , and Wanley's in In the letter to Wanley, Hickes responds to an apparent charge against Smith, made by Wanley, that Smith had failed to mention the Beowulf script when cataloguing Cotton MS.
Vitellius A. Hickes replies to Wanley "I can find nothing yet of Beowulph. It suffered damage in the Cotton Library fire at Ashburnham House in Since then, parts of the manuscript have crumbled along with many of the letters.
Rebinding efforts, though saving the manuscript from much degeneration, have nonetheless covered up other letters of the poem, causing further loss.
Kevin Kiernan, in preparing his electronic edition of the manuscript, used fibre-optic backlighting and ultraviolet lighting to reveal letters in the manuscript lost from binding, erasure, or ink blotting.
The Beowulf manuscript was transcribed from an original by two scribes, one of whom wrote the prose at the beginning of the manuscript and the first lines before breaking off in mid sentence.
The first scribe made a point of carefully regularizing the spelling of the original document by using the common West Saxon language and by avoiding any archaic or dialectical features.
The second scribe, who wrote the remainder, with a difference in handwriting noticeable after line , seems to have written more vigorously and with less interest.
As a result, the second scribe's script retains more archaic dialectic features, which allow modern scholars to ascribe the poem a cultural context.
In the way that it is currently bound, the Beowulf manuscript is followed by the Old English poem Judith. Judith was written by the same scribe that completed Beowulf as evidenced through similar writing style.
Wormholes found in the last leaves of the Beowulf manuscript that are absent in the Judith manuscript suggest that at one point Beowulf ended the volume.
The rubbed appearance of some leaves also suggest that the manuscript stood on a shelf unbound, as is known to have been the case with other Old English manuscripts.
The question of whether Beowulf was passed down through oral tradition prior to its present manuscript form has been the subject of much debate, and involves more than simply the issue of its composition.
Rather, given the implications of the theory of oral-formulaic composition and oral tradition, the question concerns how the poem is to be understood, and what sorts of interpretations are legitimate.
Scholarly discussion about Beowulf in the context of the oral tradition was extremely active throughout the s and s.
The debate might be framed starkly as follows: on the one hand, we can hypothesise a poem put together from various tales concerning the hero the Grendel episode, the story of Grendel's mother, and the fire drake narrative.
These fragments would have been told for many years in tradition, and learned by apprenticeship from one generation of illiterate poets to the next.
The poem is composed orally and extemporaneously, and the archive of tradition on which it draws is oral, pagan, Germanic, heroic, and tribal.
On the other hand, one might posit a poem which is composed by a literate scribe, who acquired literacy by way of learning Latin and absorbing Latinate culture and ways of thinking , probably a monk and therefore profoundly Christian in outlook.
On this view, the pagan references would be a sort of decorative archaising. However, scholars such as D. Crowne have proposed the idea that the poem was passed down from reciter to reciter under the theory of oral-formulaic composition , which hypothesises that epic poems were at least to some extent improvised by whoever was reciting them, and only much later written down.
In his landmark work, The Singer of Tales , Albert Lord refers to the work of Francis Peabody Magoun and others, saying "the documentation is complete, thorough, and accurate.
This exhaustive analysis is in itself sufficient to prove that Beowulf was composed orally. Examination of Beowulf and other Old English literature for evidence of oral-formulaic composition has met with mixed response.
While "themes" inherited narrative subunits for representing familiar classes of event, such as the "arming the hero",  or the particularly well-studied "hero on the beach" theme  do exist across Anglo-Saxon and other Germanic works, some scholars conclude that Anglo-Saxon poetry is a mix of oral-formulaic and literate patterns, arguing that the poems both were composed on a word-by-word basis and followed larger formulae and patterns.
Larry Benson argued that the interpretation of Beowulf as an entirely formulaic work diminishes the ability of the reader to analyse the poem in a unified manner, and with due attention to the poet's creativity.
Instead, he proposed that other pieces of Germanic literature contain "kernels of tradition" from which Beowulf borrows and expands upon.
John Miles Foley wrote, referring to the Beowulf debate,  that while comparative work was both necessary and valid, it must be conducted with a view to the particularities of a given tradition; Foley argued with a view to developments of oral traditional theory that do not assume, or depend upon, ultimately unverifiable assumptions about composition, and instead delineate a more fluid continuum of traditionality and textuality.
Finally, in the view of Ursula Schaefer, the question of whether the poem was "oral" or "literate" becomes something of a red herring.
Schaefer's concept of "vocality" offers neither a compromise nor a synthesis of the views which see the poem as on the one hand Germanic, pagan, and oral and on the other Latin-derived, Christian, and literate, but, as stated by Monika Otter: " He made one himself, and had another done by a professional copyist who knew no Anglo-Saxon.
Since that time, however, the manuscript has crumbled further, making these transcripts a prized witness to the text.
While the recovery of at least letters can be attributed to them, their accuracy has been called into question, [c] and the extent to which the manuscript was actually more readable in Thorkelin's time is uncertain.
A great number of translations and adaptations are available, in poetry and prose. Andy Orchard, in A Critical Companion to Beowulf , lists 33 "representative" translations in his bibliography,  while the Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies published Marijane Osborn's annotated list of over translations and adaptations in In , the historian Sharon Turner translated selected verses into modern English.
Grundtvig reviewed this edition in and created the first complete verse translation in Danish in Wyatt published the ninth English translation.
In , Francis Barton Gummere 's full translation in "English imitative meter" was published,  and was used as the text of Gareth Hinds's graphic novel based on Beowulf in First published in , Frederick Klaeber 's Beowulf and The Fight at Finnsburg  which included the poem in Old English , an extensive glossary of Old English terms, and general background information became the "central source used by graduate students for the study of the poem and by scholars and teachers as the basis of their translations.
Seamus Heaney 's translation of the poem referred to by Howell Chickering and many others as "Heaneywulf"  was both praised and criticized.
The US publication was commissioned by W. Fulk, of Indiana University , published the first facing-page edition and translation of the entire Nowell Codex manuscript in the Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library series in Following research in the King's College London Archives, Carl Kears proposed that John Porter's translation, published in by Bill Griffiths ' Pirate Press , was the first complete verse translation of the poem entirely accompanied by facing-page Old English.
Translating Beowulf is one of the subjects of the publication Beowulf at Kalamazoo , containing a section with 10 essays on translation, and a section with 22 reviews of Heaney's translation some of which compare Heaney's work with that of Anglo-Saxon scholar Roy Liuzza.
Tolkien 's long-awaited translation edited by his son, Christopher was published in as Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary.
It relocates the action to a wealthy community in 20th century America and is told primarily from the point of view of Grendel's mother.
Neither identified sources nor analogues for Beowulf can be definitively proven, but many conjectures have been made. These are important in helping historians understand the Beowulf manuscript, as possible source-texts or influences would suggest time-frames of composition, geographic boundaries within which it could be composed, or range both spatial and temporal of influence i.
There are Scandinavian sources, international folkloric sources, and Celtic sources. But Scandinavian works have continued to be studied as a possible source.
Axel Olrik claimed that on the contrary, this saga was a reworking of Beowulf , and others followed suit. This, the poet tells us, is what a good leader does ll.
The havoc it wreaks on an entire kingdom is instigated by the theft of a single gold cup from its hoard ll.
In standing against the dragon, Beowulf also stands against the greed it embodies. We can see a similar moral aspect to the first two monsters.
Here, the Danish princess Hildeburh marries Finn, a Frisian king, in an attempt to create peace between two hostile nations. But all does not go to plan.
Is vengeance ever justified? And where does it end? This brings us back to Grendel. All through the poem, characters are identified not by their names, but by their relationship to others.
This ability to place oneself — and be placed — in a family and tribe is central to the social interactions of the poem, mirroring the culture of its Scandinavian setting.
Grendel, though, is unplaceable. Grendel is an outsider who lives apart, out in the wilderness, without family or friends to vouch for him.
The threat he represents to the human world of the poem is simply that he has no legitimate stake in it. Like Beowulf , the story of the life of St Guthlac presents an isolated landscape as a site of danger and monstrosity.
After a religious conversion, Guthlac lived in solitude in the Lincolnshire fens where he experienced a series of battles with ferocious demons.
They literally kill people — and sometimes eat them — but they also embody the behaviours that threaten to undermine the social fabric that holds human communities together.
Peace is fragile in the world of Beowulf , and it can be easily overturned by greed, or feuding or social isolation. If we push this reading further, though, things get more complicated.
The opposition between human and monster is far murkier than we might think, especially when it comes to our hero.
The first monster Beowulf fights is Grendel, the epitome of isolation and social exclusion. But Beowulf, too, is somewhat isolated.
And these parallels only get stronger as the poem progresses.Studies in the Monsters of the ›Beowulf‹-Manuscript, Cambridge Weiteres über die Verschmelzung von Beowulf/Grendel in dieser Kampfszene bei. Ebenso die Tatsache, dass Beowulf Grendel im Kampf unter den oder seine Mutter den Kategorien Mensch oder Monster zuzuordnen. Beowulf: Monster Slayer (Graphic Myths and Legends) | Storrie, Paul D., Randall, Ron | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit. Beowulf: Monster Slayer [a British Legend] (Graphic Universe) | Storrie, Paul D., Randall, Ron | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit. Beowulf und sein Freund Wiglaf verfolgen ihn. Zum Inhalt springen Grendel und here Mutter sind zwei von drei Gegenspielern Beowulfs in dem altenglischen Heldenepos, welches denselben Namen trägt wie sein Held. The scop 's "Song of Creation" especially enrages him because it tells of the beauty and light of God's creation. Smaugs Tod hingegen beschäftigt sich nur mit Smaug, und offenbart die unterschiedlichen Gewichtungen der Drachen in beiden Erzählungen; der Drache im Beowulf ist Beowulf untergeordnet, Smaug im Hobbit ist die Ordnung, der sich Beowulf Monster Erzählung anpasst. Die ersten Monster, auf die die Gefährten im Hobbit treffen, sind drei Trolle, die im Wald um ein Feuer herum sitzen und sich ein Schaf rösten. Deutscher Titel. Beowulf Beowulf Monster S. Bilbo und die Zwerge werden von ihnen entdeckt und gefangen und werden erst durch den zurückkehrenden Gandalf gerettet, der die Trolle durch einen Trick in Stein verwandeln lässt. Der Schatz des Drachen wurde Beowulfs Wünschen entsprechend mit ihm begraben und nicht an seine Leute verteilt. Kurz nach dem Untergang taucht aus dem Wasser das You Zug Spiele Kostenlos Downloaden completely auf. Dieser Kampf, in dem der Drache mit Feuer und voller Wut versucht, Beowulf zu töten, ist die einzige Auseinandersetzung. Um die Charakterisierung fortzusetzen, sollen nun die Verknüpfungen der Drachen mit just click for source Figuren betrachtet werden. Lehnert, Martin Hg. Sein Agieren mit Bilbo zeigt im Weiteren eine Flash Kostenlos Spielen menschliche Intelligenz und konkrete Charakterzüge: Er ist arrogant, gierig, aber auch überaus intelligent und geradezu intrigant in seiner Fähigkeit, Bilbos Unsicherheiten auszunutzen. Grade Grendel vereint definitiv Mann und Monster. Bilbo, der im Verlauf der Geschichte mehrmals den Titel Meisterdieb erhält, kann mithilfe des Ringes durch einen geheimen Nebeneingang ungesehen in Smaugs Heimstätte eindringen und ihm einen goldenen Pokal entwenden. Wealthow: Shame. Diese Antibeziehung unterscheidet sich jedoch stark im Film und Https://tiberiomar.co/online-casino-play-for-fun/bitcoin-whitepaper.php. The Script Book. Person Singular fem.
Jahre später ist Beowulf schon der König der Gauten. Diesmal soll er einen Drachen töten. Das gelingt ihm, aber dabei kommt er selbst auch ums Leben.
Die alte Geschichte vom Helden Beowulf ist an sich sehr spannend. Sie erinnert an die Horror -Geschichten von heute. Es geht um einen tapferen Helden, der keine Angst vor unbekannten Dingen hat.
Geschrieben wurde die Geschichte aber wie ein Gedicht in Versen. Daraus haben mehrere Schriftsteller Romane gemacht. Darin ist der Held ein Araber , der auf Wikinger trifft.
Gemeinsam kämpfen sie gegen ein Monster, das an die Neandertaler erinnert. Auch J. Tolkien hat die Geschichte von Beowulf gelesen.
Die erste Seite der berühmten Handschrift mit der Beowulf-Geschichte. Dieser rammt dem Drachen ein Kurzschwert in den Rücken, an dem er sich im Flug festhält.
Beowulf, der mit einer Kette, die um den Hals des Ungetüms geschlungen ist, verbunden ist, kommt nicht nahe genug an das Herz heran und sieht daher keine andere Möglichkeit, als sich selbst den Arm abzuschneiden.
Der Drache stürzt mit Beowulf auf den Strand, wo er sich auflöst und sein Körper sich in den goldenen menschlichen Leib von Beowulfs Sohn verwandelt.
Wie zuvor schon Hrothgar, verschlingt ihn das Meer, noch bevor Beowulf mit ihm Kontakt aufnehmen kann. Sein Freund Wiglaf will Beowulf retten und eilt zu ihm an den Strand, doch der König ist tödlich verletzt und stirbt.
Wie schon früher festgelegt, wird Wiglaf zum neuen König. Kurz nach dem Untergang taucht aus dem Wasser das Meerweib auf. Der Film endet mit einem langen Blickkontakt.
Jahrhundert, insgesamt sind es Schwerter, alle nordeuropäischer Herkunft. If the funeral of Beowulf moved once like the echo of an ancient dirge, far-off and hopeless, it is to us as a memory brought over the hills, an echo of an echo.
There is not much poetry in the world like this; . Tolkien finishes by arguing that Beowulf "has its own individual character, and peculiar solemnity;"  and would still be powerful even if it came from some unknown time and place; but that in fact its language, Old English ,.
Scholars and critics agree on the work's wide influence. Tom Shippey wrote that the essay "was seized upon eagerly, even gratefully, by generations of critics".
Lee wrote that "Tolkien's manifesto and interpretation have had more influence on readers than any other single study, even though it has been challenged on just about every one of its major points.
Fulk commented that "No one denies the historical importance of this lecture. Robinson call it in their Beowulf, An Edition "the most influential literary criticism of the poem ever written".
The scholar and translator Roy Liuzza commented that Tolkien's essay "is usually credited with re-establishing the fabulous elements and heroic combats at the center of the modern reader's appreciation of the poem.
He argues that if myth can condense and hold the deepest sources of tension between self and the social order, and dramatises current ideologies by projecting them into the past, then even the hero Beowulf's mythic fights are at the same time throwing light on society and history.
The historian Patrick Wormald wrote of the essay: "it would be no exaggeration to describe [it] as one of the most influential works of literary criticism of that century, and since which nothing in Beowulf studies has been quite the same.
Tolkien argued powerfully that, for the Germanic mentality that gave birth to the myth of Ragnarök , the monsters of the poem were the only appropriate enemies for a great hero, and thus shifted Beowulf from the irrelevant fringes to the very centre of the Anglo-Saxon thought world.
This naturally encouraged a pre-existent tendency to square the poem with what else was known of the 'serious' levels of Anglo-Saxon thought - chiefly the Latin scholarship of the Church.
Secondly, Tolkien went far towards vindicating the structure of the poem by arguing that it was a balance of contrasting and interlocking halves.
His thesis not only convinced many critics but inspired them to follow his example, with the result that Tolkien's own position has been outflanked.
Whereas previous generations of scholars, Tolkien included, had been quite prepared to explain what they considered structural and stylistic blemishes as interpolations, modern writers seek evidence of artistic refinement in some of the poem's least promising features.
Drout similarly describes the essay's importance and arguments, writing that it. Much of this influence is because of the enormous success of [the essay], which is viewed as the beginning of modern Beowulf criticism.
The great majority of Tolkien's work on Beowulf was of the sort represented by the textual commentry in Finn and Hengest —detailed, philological, historical, and infinitely painstaking.
Yet the most influential of Tolkien's discussions of the poem are those in which he makes the greatest unsupported or lightly supported generalizations and in which he discusses the poem in the broadest possible terms.
Tolkien would perhaps have seen a fundamental continuity between the detailed and philological and the broader and more interpret[at]ive work, but because of the accidents of publication—and because of Tolkien's great gift for rhetoric—only the latter has shaped the field of Beowulf criticism.
John D. Niles observed that "Bypassing earlier scholarship, critics of the past fifty years have generally traced the current era of Beowulf studies back to ",  meaning to Tolkien's essay, which he called "eloquent and incisive".
Niles cited George Clark's observation that Tolkien left Beowulf scholars with the "myth of the poet as brooding intellectual, poised between a dying pagan world and a nascent Christian one.
Joan Acocella , writing in The New Yorker , calls it "a paper that many people regard as not just the finest essay on the poem but one of the finest essays on English literature.
Regina Weinreich , reviewing The Monsters and the Critics: And Other Essays in The New York Times , wrote that the title essay "revolutionized the study of the early English poem Beowulf, in which a young hero crushes a human-handed monster called Grendel.
Against the scorn of critics, Tolkien defends the centrality and seriousness of literary monsters, declaring his own belief in the symbolic value of such preternatural representations of sheer evil.
John Garth, writing in The Guardian , describes the paper as "still well worth reading, not only as an introduction to the poem, but also because it decisively changed the direction and emphasis of Beowulf scholarship.
Up to that point it had been used as a quarry of linguistic, historical and archaeological detail".
Tolkien pushed the monsters to the forefront. He argued that they represent the impermanence of human life, the mortal enemy that can strike at the heart of everything we hold dear, the force against which we need to muster all our strength — even if ultimately we may lose the fight.
Without the monsters, the peculiarly northern courage of Beowulf and his men is meaningless. Tolkien, veteran of the Somme, knew that it was not.
Tolkien's paper was praised by the Irish poet Seamus Heaney in the introduction to his critically acclaimed translation of Beowulf. He wrote that the "epoch-making paper"  stood out in considering Beowulf as literature.
Heaney argued that Tolkien "took for granted the poem's integrity and distinction as a work of art",  and showed how the poem achieved that status:.
Tolkien assumed that the poet had felt his way through the inherited material - the fabulous elements and the traditional accounts of a heroic past - and by a combination of creative intuition and conscious structuring had arrived at a unity of effect and a balanced order.
He assumed, in other words, that the Beowulf poet was an imaginative writer rather than some kind of back-formation derived from nineteenth-century folklore and philology.
Heaney called the paper's literary treatment "brilliant". Tolkien's own translation of Beowulf , published posthumously in as Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary , has been linked to the essay.
Tolkien stated, for instance, that Beowulf was not an actual picture of Scandinavia around AD, but was a self-consistent picture with the marks of design and thought.
This might leave the reader wondering, commented Shippey, what exactly Tolkien meant by that. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.