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Viking society was divided into the three socio-economic classes: Thralls, Karls and Jarls. Archaeology has confirmed this social structure.

Thralls were the lowest ranking class and were slaves. Slaves comprised as much as a quarter of the population. Thralls were servants and workers in the farms and larger households of the Karls and Jarls, and they were used for constructing fortifications, ramps, canals, mounds, roads and similar hard work projects.

According to the Rigsthula, Thralls were despised and looked down upon. New thralls were supplied by either the sons and daughters of thralls or captured abroad.

The Vikings often deliberately captured many people on their raids in Europe, to enslave them as thralls. The thralls were then brought back home to Scandinavia by boat, used on location or in newer settlements to build needed structures, or sold, often to the Arabs in exchange for silver.

Karls were free peasants. They owned farms, land and cattle and engaged in daily chores like ploughing the fields, milking the cattle, building houses and wagons, but used thralls to make ends meet.

Other names for Karls were 'bonde' or simply free men. The Jarls were the aristocracy of the Viking society. They were wealthy and owned large estates with huge longhouses, horses and many thralls.

The thralls did most of the daily chores, while the Jarls did administration, politics, hunting, sports, visited other Jarls or went abroad on expeditions.

When a Jarl died and was buried, his household thralls were sometimes sacrificially killed and buried next to him, as many excavations have revealed.

In daily life, there were many intermediate positions in the overall social structure and it is believed that there must have been some social mobility.

These details are unclear, but titles and positions like hauldr , thegn , landmand , show mobility between the Karls and the Jarls.

Members of the latter were referred to as drenge , one of the words for warrior. There were also official communities within towns and villages, the overall defence, religion, the legal system and the Things.

Such a woman was referred to as Baugrygr , and she exercised all the rights afforded to the head of a family clan—such as the right to demand and receive fines for the slaughter of a family member—until she married, by which her rights were transferred to her new husband.

After the age of 20, an unmarried woman, referred to as maer and mey , reached legal majority and had the right to decide her place of residence and was regarded as her own person before the law.

Female graves from before the Viking Age in Scandinavia holds a proportional large number of remains from women aged 20 to 35, presumably due to complications of childbirth.

Widows enjoyed the same independent status as unmarried women. A married woman could divorce her husband and remarry. There was no distinction made between children born inside or outside marriage: both had the right to inherit property after their parents, and there were no "legitimate" or "illegitimate" children.

The three classes were easily recognisable by their appearances. Men and women of the Jarls were well groomed with neat hairstyles and expressed their wealth and status by wearing expensive clothes often silk and well crafted jewellery like brooches , belt buckles, necklaces and arm rings.

Almost all of the jewellery was crafted in specific designs unique to the Norse see Viking art. Finger rings were seldom used and earrings were not used at all, as they were seen as a Slavic phenomenon.

Most Karls expressed similar tastes and hygiene, but in a more relaxed and inexpensive way. Archaeological findings throughout Scandinavia and Viking settlements in the British Isles support the idea of the well groomed and hygienic Viking.

Burial with grave goods was a common practice in the Scandinavian world, through the Viking Age and well past the Christianization of the Norse peoples.

The manufacturing of such antler combs was common, as at the Viking settlement at Dublin hundreds of examples of combs from the tenth-century have survived, suggesting that grooming was a common practice.

The sagas tell about the diet and cuisine of the Vikings, [] but first hand evidence, like cesspits , kitchen middens and garbage dumps have proved to be of great value and importance.

Undigested remains of plants from cesspits at Coppergate in York have provided much information in this respect.

Overall, archaeo-botanical investigations have been undertaken increasingly in recent decades, as a collaboration between archaeologists and palaeoethno-botanists.

This new approach sheds light on the agricultural and horticultural practices of the Vikings and their cuisine. The combined information from various sources suggests a diverse cuisine and ingredients.

Meat products of all kinds, such as cured , smoked and whey -preserved meat, [] sausages, and boiled or fried fresh meat cuts, were prepared and consumed.

Certain livestock were typical and unique to the Vikings, including the Icelandic horse , Icelandic cattle , a plethora of sheep breeds, [] the Danish hen and the Danish goose.

Most of the beef and horse leg bones were found split lengthways, to extract the marrow. The mutton and swine were cut into leg and shoulder joints and chops.

The frequent remains of pig skull and foot bones found on house floors indicate that brawn and trotters were also popular.

Hens were kept for both their meat and eggs, and the bones of game birds such as black grouse , golden plover , wild ducks, and geese have also been found.

Seafood was important, in some places even more so than meat. Whales and walrus were hunted for food in Norway and the north-western parts of the North Atlantic region, and seals were hunted nearly everywhere.

Oysters , mussels and shrimps were eaten in large quantities and cod and salmon were popular fish. In the southern regions, herring was also important.

Milk and buttermilk were popular, both as cooking ingredients and drinks, but were not always available, even at farms.

Food was often salted and enhanced with spices, some of which were imported like black pepper , while others were cultivated in herb gardens or harvested in the wild.

Home grown spices included caraway , mustard and horseradish as evidenced from the Oseberg ship burial [] or dill , coriander , and wild celery , as found in cesspits at Coppergate in York.

Thyme , juniper berry , sweet gale , yarrow , rue and peppercress were also used and cultivated in herb gardens. Vikings collected and ate fruits, berries and nuts.

Apple wild crab apples , plums and cherries were part of the diet, [] as were rose hips and raspberry , wild strawberry , blackberry , elderberry , rowan , hawthorn and various wild berries, specific to the locations.

The shells were used for dyeing, and it is assumed that the nuts were consumed. The invention and introduction of the mouldboard plough revolutionised agriculture in Scandinavia in the early Viking Age and made it possible to farm even poor soils.

In Ribe , grains of rye , barley , oat and wheat dated to the 8th century have been found and examined, and are believed to have been cultivated locally.

Remains of bread from primarily Birka in Sweden were made of barley and wheat. It is unclear if the Norse leavened their breads, but their ovens and baking utensils suggest that they did.

This suggests a much higher actual percentage, as linen is poorly preserved compared to wool for example. The quality of food for common people was not always particularly high.

The research at Coppergate shows that the Vikings in York made bread from whole meal flour—probably both wheat and rye —but with the seeds of cornfield weeds included.

Corncockle Agrostemma , would have made the bread dark-coloured, but the seeds are poisonous, and people who ate the bread might have become ill.

Seeds of carrots, parsnip , and brassicas were also discovered, but they were poor specimens and tend to come from white carrots and bitter tasting cabbages.

The effects of this can be seen on skeletal remains of that period. Sports were widely practised and encouraged by the Vikings.

This included spear and stone throwing, building and testing physical strength through wrestling see glima , fist fighting , and stone lifting.

In areas with mountains, mountain climbing was practised as a sport. Agility and balance were built and tested by running and jumping for sport, and there is mention of a sport that involved jumping from oar to oar on the outside of a ship's railing as it was being rowed.

Swimming was a popular sport and Snorri Sturluson describes three types: diving, long-distance swimming, and a contest in which two swimmers try to dunk one another.

Children often participated in some of the sport disciplines and women have also been mentioned as swimmers, although it is unclear if they took part in competition.

King Olaf Tryggvason was hailed as a master of both mountain climbing and oar-jumping, and was said to have excelled in the art of knife juggling as well.

Skiing and ice skating were the primary winter sports of the Vikings, although skiing was also used as everyday means of transport in winter and in the colder regions of the north.

Horse fighting was practised for sport, although the rules are unclear. It appears to have involved two stallions pitted against each other, within smell and sight of fenced-off mares.

Whatever the rules were, the fights often resulted in the death of one of the stallions. Icelandic sources refer to the sport of knattleik.

A ball game akin to hockey , knattleik involved a bat and a small hard ball and was usually played on a smooth field of ice.

The rules are unclear, but it was popular with both adults and children, even though it often led to injuries. Knattleik appears to have been played only in Iceland, where it attracted many spectators, as did horse fighting.

Hunting, as a sport, was limited to Denmark, where it was not regarded as an important occupation. Birds, deer , hares and foxes were hunted with bow and spear, and later with crossbows.

The techniques were stalking, snare and traps and par force hunting with dog packs. Both archaeological finds and written sources testify to the fact that the Vikings set aside time for social and festive gatherings.

Board games and dice games were played as a popular pastime at all levels of society. Preserved gaming pieces and boards show game boards made of easily available materials like wood, with game pieces manufactured from stone, wood or bone, while other finds include elaborately carved boards and game pieces of glass, amber , antler or walrus tusk, together with materials of foreign origin, such as ivory.

The Vikings played several types of tafl games; hnefatafl , nitavl nine men's morris and the less common kvatrutafl.

Chess also appeared at the end of the Viking Age. Hnefatafl is a war game, in which the object is to capture the king piece—a large hostile army threatens and the king's men have to protect the king.

It was played on a board with squares using black and white pieces, with moves made according to dice rolls.

The Ockelbo Runestone shows two men engaged in Hnefatafl, and the sagas suggest that money or valuables could have been involved in some dice games.

On festive occasions storytelling , skaldic poetry , music and alcoholic drinks, like beer and mead , contributed to the atmosphere.

The Vikings are known to have played instruments including harps , fiddles , lyres and lutes. Viking-age reenactors have undertaken experimental activities such as iron smelting and forging using Norse techniques at Norstead in Newfoundland for example.

The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during a excavation in the Roskilde Fjord.

Tree-ring analysis has shown the ship was built of oak in the vicinity of Dublin in about Seventy multi-national crew members sailed the ship back to its home, and Sea Stallion arrived outside Dublin's Custom House on 14 August The purpose of the voyage was to test and document the seaworthiness, speed, and manoeuvrability of the ship on the rough open sea and in coastal waters with treacherous currents.

The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society.

The ship was built using Viking tools, materials, and much the same methods as the original ship. Other vessels, often replicas of the Gokstad ship full- or half-scale or Skuldelev have been built and tested as well.

Elements of a Scandinavian identity and practices were maintained in settler societies, but they could be quite distinct as the groups assimilated into the neighboring societies.

Assimilation to the Frankish culture in Normandy for example was rapid. Knowledge about the arms and armour of the Viking age is based on archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century.

According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons and were permitted to carry them at all times.

These arms indicated a Viking's social status: a wealthy Viking had a complete ensemble of a helmet , shield , mail shirt, and sword.

However, swords were rarely used in battle, probably not sturdy enough for combat and most likely only used as symbolic or decorative items.

Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea, but they tended to be considered less "honourable" than melee weapons.

Vikings were relatively unusual for the time in their use of axes as a main battle weapon. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religion , focusing on Thor and Odin , the gods of war and death.

Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria , [] or large amounts of alcohol.

The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia.

Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy, that is, the weight of precious metals.

Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.

A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled.

Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products. The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants.

To counter these valuable imports, the Vikings exported a large variety of goods. These goods included: []. Other exports included weapons, walrus ivory , wax , salt and cod.

As one of the more exotic exports, hunting birds were sometimes provided from Norway to the European aristocracy, from the 10th century.

Many of these goods were also traded within the Viking world itself, as well as goods such as soapstone and whetstone. Soapstone was traded with the Norse on Iceland and in Jutland , who used it for pottery.

Whetstones were traded and used for sharpening weapons, tools and knives. This trade satisfied the Vikings' need for leather and meat to some extent, and perhaps hides for parchment production on the European mainland.

Wool was also very important as a domestic product for the Vikings, to produce warm clothing for the cold Scandinavian and Nordic climate, and for sails.

Sails for Viking ships required large amounts of wool, as evidenced by experimental archaeology.

There are archaeological signs of organised textile productions in Scandinavia, reaching as far back as the early Iron Ages. Artisans and craftsmen in the larger towns were supplied with antlers from organised hunting with large-scale reindeer traps in the far north.

They were used as raw material for making everyday utensils like combs. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne.

The devastation of Northumbria 's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal courts of Europe to the Viking presence. Not until the s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.

Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes.

Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.

The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.

Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.

Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.

These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king.

Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e.

Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus History of the northern people of Olaus Magnus , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum Deeds of the Danes , by Saxo Grammaticus , in The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hickes , who published his Linguarum vett.

During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.

The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking.

Geijer's poem did much to propagate the new romanticised ideal of the Viking, which had little basis in historical fact. The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications.

The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent. Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.

In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism.

Pioneering 19th-century scholarly editions of the Viking Age began to reach a small readership in Britain, archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past, and linguistic enthusiasts started to identify the Viking-Age origins of rural idioms and proverbs.

The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas.

Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.

The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.

In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.

The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of a Germanic master race.

The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.

Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.

Soviet and earlier Slavophile historians emphasized a Slavic rooted foundation in contrast to the Normanist theory of the Vikings conquering the Slavs and founding the Kievan Rus'.

They argued that Rus' composition was Slavic and that Rurik and Oleg' success was rooted in their support from within the local Slavic aristocracy.

These have included novels directly based on historical events, such as Frans Gunnar Bengtsson 's The Long Ships which was also released as a film , and historical fantasies such as the film The Vikings , Michael Crichton 's Eaters of the Dead movie version called The 13th Warrior , and the comedy film Erik the Viking.

Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.

The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series. The appearance of Vikings within popular media and television has seen a resurgence in recent decades, especially with the History Channel's series Vikings , directed by Michael Hirst.

However, the conclusions remain contentious. Vikings have served as an inspiration for numerous video games , such as The Lost Vikings , Age of Mythology , and For Honor Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, movies, television series, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.

Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.

Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.

The formal, close-quarters style of Viking combat either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands" would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side.

Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.

The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th-century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet , founded in in Stockholm.

The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.

This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.

The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.

Horned helmets from the Bronze Age were shown in petroglyphs and appeared in archaeological finds see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets. They were probably used for ceremonial purposes.

Cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking , and sports kits such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Canberra Raiders have perpetuated the myth of the horned helmet.

Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops. The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden.

The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway. This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century.

The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.

There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century [] as referring to the skulls of the slain.

Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.

Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates. Contemporary countries.

Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden. Other topics. Main article: Viking Age. Main article: Viking expansion.

Main article: Runestone. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden. Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark. Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age.

See also: Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala. Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli.

Main article: Viking ships. Prow of the Oseberg ship , at Oslo Museum. A reconstructed longship. Two typical viking ships.

Main article: Viking Age arms and armour. Viking swords. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture.

December Play media. Main article: Horned helmet. Constructs such as ibid. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references quick guide , or an abbreviated title.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Vikings. Cambridge University Press. The term 'Viking' This is the narrow, and technically the only correct use of the term 'Viking,' but in such expressions as 'Viking civilisation,' 'the Viking age,' 'the Viking movement,' 'Viking influence,' the word has come to have a wider significance and is used as a concise and convenient term for describing the whole of the civilisation, activity and influence of the Scandinavian peoples, at a particular period in their history, and to apply the term 'Viking' in its narrower sense to these movements would be as misleading as to write an account of the age of Elizabeth and label it 'The Buccaneers.

Historical Dictionary of the Vikings. Scarecrow Press. Viking is not merely another way of referring to a medieval Scandinavian.

Technically, the word has a more specific meaning, and it was used only infrequently by contemporaries of the Vikings to refer to those Scandinavians, usually men, who attacked their contemporaries Simpson, Jacqueline The Viking World.

Strictly speaking, therefore, the term Viking should only be applied to men actually engaged in these violent pursuits, and not to every contemporary Scandinavian Davies, Norman The Isles: A History.

Oxford University Press. The Viking appellation Encyclopaedia Britannica. The term "Viking" is applied today to Scandinavians who left their homes intent on raiding or conquest, and their descendants, during a period extending roughly from a.

Mawer, Allen In Bury, J. The Cambridge Medieval History. The term Viking The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed.

Retrieved 3 January Scandinavian words used to describe the seafaring raiders from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark who ravaged the coasts of Europe from about ad onwards.

Crowcroft, Robert; Cannon, John , eds. The Oxford Companion to British History 2 ed. Viking is an Old Norse term, of disputed derivation, which only came into common usage in the 19th cent.

Concise Oxford English Dictionary. OUP Oxford. Vikings: Any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of NW Europe in the 8th—11th centuries Random House Unabridged Dictionary Random House.

Collins Online Dictionary. The Vikings were people who sailed from Scandinavia and attacked villages in most parts of north-western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries Collins English Dictionary.

Webster's New World Dictionary, 4th Edition Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cambridge Dictionary. Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.

These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Archived from the original on 30 September Lepel Regional Executive Committee.

Visby Sweden , n. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. Skeat , published in , defined Viking : better Wiking, Icel. Viking-r, O. Skeat; Clarendon press; p.

An etymological contribution" PDF. Arkiv för Nordisk Filologi. Archived from the original PDF on 14 July Retrieved 20 April Skeat: Principles of English Etymology Clarendon press, p.

Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 17 March A reply to Harald Bjorvand". Centre of Medieval Studies University of Bergen.

Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 13 January Boas 13 May Linguistics Research Center.

The University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on 22 December Archaeology in Europe. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 8 June — via academia.

Saga-book of the Viking Society. University College London. Retrieved 15 April Ancient History Encyclopedia.

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Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 6 April National Geographic. Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original PDF on 18 July Retrieved 11 May Bibcode : Wthr Der Spiegel.

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A historical essay". Annals of Neurology. Evolution and Human Behavior. Science AAAS. Archived from the original on 27 July Crellin; Christian Horn; Marion Uckelmann Boyer history, myths, dictionary, Robert Laffont several , p.

A bibliography of French-language", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p.

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Laubbläser, Blasgeräte und Saughäcksler. Connected und Smart Products. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung. Ketten- und Schienensysteme.

Smart Products Technologie. Entwicklung und Qualität. Fashion Collections. Katalog Angebote und Aktionen. Gartenabfälle entsorgen.

Terrasse reinigen und pflegen. Gartenmöbel reinigen. Richtlinien und Standards. Online bestellen. Europameisterschaft der Forstschulen.

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Vikinh Video

In that case, the word Viking was not originally connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. Mähen und Pflanzen. Archived from the original on 2 May Silver Link in the Viking Age. Gleichzeitig schmiedet er einen Plan, um König von ganz Norwegen zu werden. The kings of Norway continued to assert power in parts of northern Britain and Ireland, and raids continued into the 12th century, but the military ambitions of Scandinavian rulers were now directed toward new paths. Viking is an Old Norse term, click here disputed derivation, which only came into common usage in the 19th cent. Mawer, Allen Retrieved 1 March

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Etliche Mönche werden als Sklaven mitgenommen. Hier begegnet Ragnar zum ersten Mal Bruder Athelstan. Während andere Mönche den Überfall der Wikinger für ein Vorzeichen der Apokalypse halten, versteckt sich Athelstan und versucht eine Abschrift des Johannesevangeliums vor den plündernden Wikingern zu retten.

Ragnar hält seinen Bruder Rollo davon ab, Athelstan zu töten, nicht zuletzt weil Athelstan ein wenig Altnordisch spricht.

Reich mit Kirchenschätzen beladen und mit fünf Mönchen als Sklaven kommen die Wikinger wieder in der Heimat an. Der Jarl beansprucht jedoch die gesamte Beute.

Lediglich ein Stück der Beute darf sich jeder der Männer aus dem Schatz nehmen. Ragnar wählt zum allgemeinen Erstaunen Athelstan.

Er schafft es, beim Jarl eine erneute Beutefahrt nach England durchzusetzen. Um die Erlaubnis zu erhalten, muss er jedoch Knut mitnehmen, einen Gefolgsmann des Jarls.

Auch Ragnars Frau Lagertha ist mit dabei. Dank Ragnars taktischem Geschick können sie auch diesmal wieder reiche Beute machen. Da Ragnar den Angriff während des Gottesdienstes durchführen lässt, können seine Männer die gesamte Bevölkerung der angegriffenen Stadt auf einmal festsetzen.

Lagertha kommt dazu, als Knut eine Angelsächsin vergewaltigen will. Als sie ihn davon abhält, greift er sie an und will auch sie vergewaltigen, woraufhin sie ihn tötet.

Die Wikinger kämpfen sie jedoch recht schnell nieder und verlieren dabei nur wenige Männer. Der Ruhm Ragnars vermehrt sich durch seinen erneuten Erfolg.

Das steigende Ansehen Ragnars missfällt jedoch dem Jarl, der gegen Ragnar vorgeht, dessen Hof niederbrennt und die Dienerschaft tötet.

Ragnar und seine Familie können nur knapp entkommen. Ragnar hat auch nicht mit den Gefühlen seines älteren Bruders Rollo gerechnet. Nach den ersten Überfällen bereiten sich die Angelsachsen besser auf die Angriffe der Wikinger vor, und es kommt zu diversen militärischen Auseinandersetzungen.

Ragnar interessiert sich für die Lebensart der Angelsachsen, die er bei einem formellen Abendessen in der Residenz des Königs kennen lernt.

Als seine militärische List fehlschlägt und Ragnar den Bruder des Königs als Leiche zurückschickt, ist Aelle dennoch gezwungen, das Lösegeld zu bezahlen.

Doch er schwört Rache und ist von nun an Ragnars unversöhnlicher Todfeind. Nachdem Rollo einen seiner ehemaligen Kameraden getötet hat, ergibt er sich desillusioniert Ragnar.

Ragnar schafft es, einen brüchigen Frieden zwischen Horik und Borg zu vermitteln, indem er beiden die Teilnahme am nächsten Englandraubzug verspricht.

Borg gibt daraufhin gegenüber Horik nach. Ragnars Frau Lagertha und ihr Sohn verlassen ihn, nachdem seine Geliebte Aslaug ein Kind von ihm erwartet und zu ihm zieht.

Gleichzeitig gehen die politischen Intrigen weiter, in die Rollo zunächst verwickelt ist. In der 2.

Folge erfolgt ein Zeitsprung von vier Jahren. Ragnar hat bereits zwei Kinder mit Aslaug, ein drittes Kind ist unterwegs.

Ragnar bricht mit Horik nach England auf, wo sie nach einem schweren Sturm an einer unbekannten Küste landen. Es stellt sich heraus, dass es sich um das Königreich Wessex handelt.

Dort regiert König Egbert , der offenbar ein fähiger, recht gefürchteter Herrscher ist und sich auf die neue Bedrohung einstellt.

König Horiks Sohn Ari stirbt während des Raubzugs. Währenddessen kommt es auch zum Konflikt zwischen Ragnar und Jarl Borg. Rollo, der von seinem Bruder zwar wieder aufgenommen, aber in Kattegat zurückgelassen wurde, organisiert die Verteidigung und schafft es, Ragnars Familie in Sicherheit zu bringen.

Ragnar sieht sich daraufhin gezwungen, England sofort zu verlassen. Jarl Borg wird mit der grausamen Methode des Blutadler Blutaar getötet.

Den vereinigten Truppen der angelsächsischen Könige gelingt es aufgrund von Egberts Kenntnis antiker Strategien, die Wikinger zu schlagen.

Egbert ist an einem Bündnis mit den Wikingern interessiert und bietet ihnen Siedlungsland an, worauf Ragnar aufgeschlossen reagiert. Horik wird von Ragnar getötet, nur dessen Sohn Erlendur wird verschont.

In Ragnars Herrschaftsgebiet, wo Aslaug zurückgeblieben ist, taucht währenddessen für kurze Zeit ein mysteriöser Wanderer auf, der gottähnliche Kräfte zu besitzen scheint.

Das Verhältnis zwischen Ragnar und Aslaug, aber auch zwischen Ragnar und Floki verschlechtert sich zunehmend. Lagertha unterhält einige Zeit eine Affäre mit König Egbert, der verspricht, den neuen Siedlern zu helfen.

Athelstan geht eine kurze Affäre mit Egberts Schwiegertochter Judith ein, die bereits einen legitimen Sohn von ihrem Gatten Aethelwulf hat und bei dieser Gelegenheit erneut schwanger wird.

Nach der Abreise der meisten Wikinger aus Wessex unternimmt Aethelwulf einen brutalen Angriff auf deren englische Siedlung. König Egbert scheint die schuldigen Adligen zu bestrafen, in Wahrheit gehörte der Überfall jedoch zu seinem Plan, die Wikinger vor Ort auszuschalten und sich langfristig die Oberherrschaft über ganz England zu sichern.

Es gelingt ihm, sich die Oberherrschaft über Mercia zu sichern. Zudem nimmt er sich seine Schwiegertochter zur Mätresse, nachdem er ihre blutige öffentliche Bestrafung nach Nennung Athelstans als Vater ihres ungeborenen Kindes abgebrochen hat.

Ragnars Vertrauter Athelstan wird von Floki, der dem Angelsachsen nie vertraute und eifersüchtig auf dessen gutes Verhältnis zu Ragnar war, ermordet.

Auch weitere Angriffe werden, wenngleich mühsam, von den Verteidigern von Paris zurückgeschlagen, doch die Nahrungsmittel in der Stadt werden knapp.

Der bei den Kämpfen schwer verwundete Ragnar hat aber noch eine andere Bedingung: Er will als Christ getauft werden, was auch unmittelbar vor Ort noch geschieht, zum Entsetzen der anderen Wikingerführer.

Der dem Tode nahe Ragnar wünscht ein christliches Begräbnis. Unerwartet öffnet sich der Sarg und der noch lebendige Ragnar und die anwesenden Wikinger nehmen Prinzessin Gisla als Geisel und öffnen die Tore der Stadt.

Allerdings bleibt ein Teil unter Rollos Führung zurück. Rollo geht darauf ein. In der vierten Staffel geht es abermals um einen Angriff auf Paris.

Ragnar und Rollo begegnen einander als Feinde. In Paris wendet sich Rollo gegen die letzten Verbündeten seiner Heimat, um damit seine Stellung am westfränkischen Hof zu stärken und die Gunst seiner Braut, Prinzessin Gisla, zu gewinnen — ohne Erfolg.

Nachdem sich Ragnar erholt hat, startet er gemeinsam mit den Wikingern einen zweiten Beutezug auf Paris. Die Wikinger müssen eine Niederlage einstecken, geben sich jedoch noch nicht geschlagen.

Ragnar und die Wikinger müssen die Flucht ergreifen. In Britannien wurde inzwischen Königin Kwenthrith vom Thron Mercias gestürzt und mit ihrem jungen Sohn gefangengesetzt.

Trotz dieser Entdeckung hält er am Bündnis mit König Egbert fest. Egbert und Aelle wollen nun die Ordnung in Mercia wiederherstellen, doch Egbert treibt ein falsches Spiel.

Zunächst organisiert er für seinen Enkel Alfred Judiths Sohn von Athelstan eine Pilgerreise nach Rom , auf der ihn Aethelwulf begleiten soll, wodurch Egbert freie Hand hat, seine Streitmacht persönlich nach Mercia zu führen.

Bei einem geheimen Treffen mit dem Usurpator Wigstan verzichtet dieser freiwillig auf den Thron, wodurch Egbert nun kampflos König von Wessex und Mercia wird und damit seine Verbündeten Kwenthrith und Aelle hintergeht.

Damit ist das Bündnis zwischen Wessex und Northumbria endgültig zerbrochen. Nach einem Zeitsprung — geschätzt werden zwischen sechs und acht Jahre [10] — kehren die Wikinger zurück nach Kattegat, das sich in den Jahren verändert hat.

Selbst seine Familie ist von dieser Enthüllung schwer getroffen. Ragnar lernt seine mittlerweile erwachsenen Söhne Hvitserk, Ivar, Ubbe und Sigurd kennen, die sich von ihrem Vater ebenfalls betrogen fühlen.

Ragnar, umzingelt von Wikingern und seiner Familie, die ihm alle mit Hass begegnen, stellt ihnen die Frage, wer sich traut, ihn zu töten und somit König zu werden.

Nach einem Sturm stranden sie an der Küste von Wessex und werden gefangen genommen. König Egbert ist erfreut, sich mit Ragnar unterhalten zu können.

Im Gespräch offenbaren sie viele Motive ihrer vorherigen Handlungen und auch, dass Ragnar nicht mehr wirklich an die Götter glaubt, während Egbert trotz aller harten Realpolitik sich am Religiösen klammert.

Da Egbert sich hartnäckig weigert, Ragnar zu töten, schlägt dieser vor, ihn an seinen alten Todfeind König Aelle auszuliefern.

Wenn dann Ragnars Söhne ihn rächen würden, was mit Sicherheit geschehen werde, würde dies nicht Wessex betreffen; dafür sollte Ivar heil nach Kattegat zurückkehren dürfen.

Egbert stimmt zu, doch Ragnar vertraut sich Ivar an, zu dem er langsam eine Verbindung aufgebaut hat, dass die folgende Rache Wessex treffen solle.

Ragnar wird an Aelle ausgeliefert, der nach all den Jahren endlich seinen Schwur einlösen kann und Ragnar in einer Schlangengrube tötet.

Währenddessen haben sich die Verhältnisse in Kattegat verändert. Lagertha übernimmt dort die Macht und tötet Aslaug, woraufhin vor allem der zurückgekehrte Ivar auf Rache sinnt.

Dort findet Helga das Waisenmädchen Tanaruz, welches sie nach Norwegen mitnimmt. Bjorn und seine Halbbrüder erfahren vom Tod ihres Vaters und sammeln sich wieder in Kattegat.

Staffel 2 getötet. Egbert verzichtet zugunsten Aethelwulfs auf die Krone und liefert sich den Wikingern aus. Er hält sie durch die offizielle Übertragung von Land hin und erkauft sich so auch die Möglichkeit, statt wie Aelle durch einen Blutadler durch Suizid im Stil antiker Philosophen zu sterben.

Bei den Wikingern entbrennt ein Streit, wie es nun weitergehen soll. Bjorn will weiter ans Mittelmeer ziehen der Mittelmeerkreuzzung spielt in der Serie , was aber zeitlich nicht passt, da der Angriff auf Paris ebenfalls erfolgt , andere Wikinger wollen in England siedeln, wie es schon Ragnar geplant hat, während etwa Ivar auf weitere Eroberungen in England aus ist.

Helga wird von Tanaruz erstochen, welche sich danach ebenfalls umbringt. Die Gemeinschaft beginnt zu zerfallen.

Die einen planen das von König Egbert versprochene Land einzufordern und zu besiedeln. Andere wollten weitere Eroberungszüge unternehmen oder auch in die Heimat reisen.

Floki ist nach dem Tod von Helga ein gebrochener Mann. Er verlässt alleine die Streitmacht in England. Ein Sturm bringt ihn an die Küste einer unbekannten vulkanischen Insel Island.

Geschwächt und dem Tode nah erscheinen ihm die Götter und er glaubt sich in Asgard zu befinden. König Harald entscheidet sich für die Rückkehr nach Kattegat.

Er verspricht, von den Heldentaten in England zu berichten. Gleichzeitig schmiedet er einen Plan, um König von ganz Norwegen zu werden.

Sie segeln bis Sizilien und werden dort als Leibgarde des eher unbedeutenden byzantinischen Statthalters Euphemios angeheuert, der gegen Kaiser Michael II.

Björns Wissensdurst treibt ihn jedoch weiter. Er überzeugt Euphemios, ihn nach Nordafrika zu begleiten, wo ein mächtiger muslimischer Herrscher namens Ziyadat Allah residiert, dem Euphemios Tribut entrichtet.

So überzeugt Ivar seine Brüder York zu überfallen. Die Wikinger nehmen die Stadt im Handstreich ein und beginnen sich einzurichten.

Sie bauen die Befestigungen der Stadt aus, da sie einen Angriff angelsächsischer Truppen unter dem Kommando von Egberts Sohn Aethelwulf und Bischof Heahmund von Sherborne [12] befürchten; letzterer versteht sich als Soldat Gottes und beteiligt sich mit seinen Männern aktiv an Kampfhandlungen.

Ubbe und Hvitserk führen im Anschluss hinter Ivars Rücken Friedensverhandlungen, die aber scheitern; sie werden von Bischof Heahmund gedemütigt und misshandelt zurückgeschickt.

In der Folge beansprucht Ivar die Führung des Heeres für sich. Ivar nimmt bei einer weiteren Auseinandersetzung mit den Angelsachsen Bischof Heahmund von Sherborne gefangen.

Björn heiratet eine samische Prinzessin. Am Vollmond stehen sich die Truppen Ivars und Lagerthas gegenüber. Nach einer erbitterten Schlacht gewinnen Lagerthas Truppen und nehmen den in der Schlacht verletzen Bischof Heahmund gefangen.

Ivar schickt Hvitserk nach Frankreich, um einen Gefallen von Rollo einzufordern. Inzwischen stirbt König Aethelwulf nach einem Bienenstich und es steht offen, wer sein Nachfolger wird.

Nach sehr viel Druck von ihrer Seite gibt Aethelred nach und gibt die Krone an seinen Halbbruder über.

Source Jarl beansprucht jedoch die gesamte Beute. Lagertha kommt dazu, als Knut eine Angelsächsin vergewaltigen. Termini e condizioni della vendita. La spedizione di solito viene effettuata entro 2 giorni lavorativi dalla ricezione del pagamento. Visita il mio Negozio eBay. Jack McEvoy. Bjorn als Kind. Contatta il venditore - si apre in una nuova finestra o scheda e chiedi il servizio di spedizione per il tuo indirizzo. Ragnar wählt zum allgemeinen Erstaunen Athelstan. Allerdings bleibt ein Teil unter Rollos Führung zurück. Vedi tutti. Clive Standen. Das Verhältnis zwischen Ragnar und Aslaug, https://tiberiomar.co/roxy-palace-online-casino/beste-spielothek-in-witzelsmshle-finden.php auch zwischen Article source und Floki verschlechtert sich zunehmend.

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